16/06/2018, Lena Delta, Russian Federation Where the Lena River, one of Russia’s five longest waterways, flows into the Laptev Sea, it forms a unique delta of three million hectares, 6 500 km river branches, more than 30 000 lakes of varying sizes and over 1 500 islands.
When seen from above, even in this false-colour 100 m image of PROBA-V, the water mosaic is enriched by the brightness of the tundra vegetation cover, a mix of nearly 1 000 species of vascular plants, grass, moss, lichen and algae species. The small larch grove, on one of the southern islands, is considered the northern most forest massif of northeast Eurasia.
The Lena Delta and the Ust-Lensky Reserve, that occupies almost half of the delta, are key for the nesting of migrating birds, like the rare Siberian white crane, and supports mammals like the white whale, polar bears, Arctic fox and wild reindeer.
The mixture of land and water and the richness in fauna and flora, all under conditions of (up to 600 m deep) permafrost and the harsh northern climate, make the Delta a unique Arctic landscape and natural heritage to be preserved.
18/05/2018, Amur and Ussuri Rivers Together with the Ussuri River, the Amur River, tenth longest in the world, forms part of the border between the Russian Far East and northeastern China, until their confluence near Khadarovsk (highlighted in bright purple spots in this mid-May image). After that, the river continues its way to the northeast, spreading out into a braided character as it passes through a wide valley.
The Heilong Jiang province of China, on the south bank, and the Amur Oblast in Russia on the north side, are both named after the river, which continues to play an important geo-political role.
The “Black River” or “Black Dragon River”, after the local historical Manchu name and current Chinese name of the river, is the only river in the world where subtropical Asian fish, such as snakehead, coexist with Arctic Siberian fish such as pike. The largest species is the kaluga, that can attain an astounding 5.6m in length.
26/03/2018, Hydropower in Cambodia In Cambodia, hydropower electricity generation has greatly increased during the present decade. While in 2010 only a few percent of Cambodia’s electricity was generated through hydropower, in 2017 this was more than 60%. A major contribution was enabled through completion of the Lower Sesan II Dam, located at the confluence of the Sesan and Srepok Rivers in north-east Cambodia, in November 2017. The dam generates about 400 MW of electricity and several more hydropower constructions are planned during the next few years.
The difference at the confluence of the Sesan and Srepok Rivers before and after completion of the Lower Sesan II Dam is clearly visible between this(100 m image of 26 March 2018) and the next image (100 m image of 11 March 2017). At the left part of both images the Mekong River, of which Sesan and Srepok are tributaries, flows towards the south.
Both images can be downloaded in high resolution on the PROBA-V website (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/).
11/03/2017, Hydropower in Cambodia In Cambodia, hydropower electricity generation has greatly increased during the present decade. While in 2010 only a few percent of Cambodia’s electricity was generated through hydropower, in 2017 this was more than 60%. A major contribution was enabled through completion of the Lower Sesan II Dam, located at the confluence of the Sesan and Srepok Rivers in north-east Cambodia, in November 2017. The dam generates about 400 MW of electricity and several more hydropower constructions are planned during the next few years.
The difference at the confluence of the Sesan and Srepok Rivers before and after completion of the Lower Sesan II Dam is clearly visible between this(100 m image of 11 March 2017) and the previous image (100 m image of 26 March 2018). At the left part of both images the Mekong River, of which Sesan and Srepok are tributaries, flows towards the south.
Both images can be downloaded in high resolution on the PROBA-V website (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/).
19/02/2018, Orinoco River, Colombia This year’s Earth Day, which has been celebrated since 1970 and was established as a protest against more than 150 years of negative human impact on the environment since industrialisation’s onset, will be celebrated on 22 April and will focus on terminating the plastic pollution. In Colombia, initiatives are being taken to recycle large amounts of plastic waste into Lego-like earthquake-resistant bricks to construct houses.
To honour this and other initiatives, we show a 100 m image of 19 February 2018 of Colombia’s Orinoco River, which can be seen flowing north-eastwards. Orinoco’s main tributaries, the Meta (upper image part) and Vichada (lower image part) flow from west to east and are clearly visible together with their green river banks. The area east of the Orinoco is El Tuparro National Natural Park, a nature reserve covering nearly 5,500 km2, which is largely covered by natural grass savanna that gives home to a large diversity of species.
01/04/2017, Danube delta, Romania The recently started Multiscale Observation Networks for Optical monitoring of Coastal waters, Lakes and Estuaries (MONOCLE) project aims at an improved characterisation of water-leaving reflectance and water quality over inland and transitional waters, such as river deltas and estuaries, at multiple spatial scales.
The combination of satellite and drone imagery with additional in-situ observations will enable improved Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and chlorophyll-a retrievals at maximised spatio-temporal resolution. These improved retrievals will be beneficial to various end-user groups, such as the water modelling community.
An example of river sediment transport is given in the 100 m image of 1 April 2017, which shows the Danube river flowing into the Black Sea in northeast Romania, one of MONOCLE's study areas. The light-blue whirls just off-shore indicate substantial amounts of sediments from the Danube outflow.
The green-brown area is the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, a 6,300 km2 area with numerous lakes, ponds, small islands, and wetlands. The area gives home to more than 300 bird and about 90 fish species.
MONOCLE has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 776480. Discover more about the project, its goals and partners at 'Monitoring water quality in your backyard'.
04/11/2016, Darling River, Australia In the arid outback of the Australian state of New South Wales, the most famous waterway is the Darling River, highlighted in dark blue in this PROBA-V image from November 2016. It flows from the northeast towards the southwest, where it will join the Murray River and head further towards the Great Australian Bight, near Adelaide.
In lighter blue, a series of freshwater lakes connect to the Paroo River that joins the Darling in the southwest of the image, near the historical village of Wilcannia. The area of the confluence of both rivers, along with Lakes Peery and Poloko, are part of the Paroo-Darling national park.
On the beds of the lakes, mound springs bring up fresh water from a vast acquifer that underlies almost 25% of the Australian continent, the Great Artesian Basin. This was an important water source for the indigenous Aboriginals and wildlife, but has more recently come under stress from competing uses, such as groundwater pumping for irrigation or mining.
25/07/2016, Guadalquivir, Spain The 100 m false-colour image of 16 july 2016 shows us Guadalquivir River, the only great navigable river in Spain. Currently it is navigable to Seville. The Guadalquivir is 657 km long and drains an area of about 58,000 km².
The Guadalquivir River Basin occupies an area of 63,085 km² and has a long history of severe flooding.
06/11/2016, Syr Darya, Kyrgystan The 100 m false-colour image of 6 November 2016 shows us the Syr Darya. It originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for 2,212 kilometers west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
06/11/2016, Amu Darja, Tadzjikistan This 100 m image of 6 November 2016 shows us the Amu River, historically known by its Latin name ‘Oxus’. It’s a major river in Central Asia, formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, at Qal`eh-ye Panjeh in Afghanistan, and flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Iran and Turan.
01/01/2017, Bay of Fundy, Canada The 100 m false-colour image of 1 January 2017 shows us Bay of Fundy, a bay on the Atlantic coast of North America, also named Baie Française.
The Bay of Fundy is known for having the highest tidal range in the world.
The highest water level ever recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin (below) on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the “Saxby Gale”. The water level of 21.6 meters resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, and a spring tide.
11/02/2017, Yantze river, China The 100 m false-colour image of 11 February 2017 shows us part of the Yantze River, near the city Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, China.
Known in China as the Cháng Jiāng, literally: "Long River". The Yantze river is the longest in the world who flows entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China and its river basin is home to one-third of the country's population.[
In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, agricultural run-off, siltation, and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. Some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves.
01/07/2016, Ob, Russia The 100 m image of 1 July 2016 shows us part of River Ob, also Obi, a major river in western Siberia, Russia. Ob river is one of the largest rivers of not only Russia, but all over the world. It flows from the South to the North of Western Siberia is almost parallel to the great Russian river Yenisei. In the place of confluence there is a huge Gulf. It is called Obskaya Guba and length greater than 800 km Is a kind of a mouth of the river, bearing in scientific circles, the name of the estuary. It is characterized by the absence of river sediments. Their creation hinder sea currents. The length of the river Ob equal 3650 km.
01/07/2016, Nenets Nature Reserve, Russia The 100 m false-colour image of 1 July 2016 shows us Nenets Nature Reserve, a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) in the northeast of European Russia on the coast of the Barents Sea and the delta of the Pechora River. The Pechora River is a river in northwest Russia which flows north in the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains. 1,809 kilometres long and its basin is 322,000 km², or about the same size as Finland.
07/05/2017, Missouri, USA The 100 m false-colour image of 7 May 2017 shows us Missouri River in South Dakota, USA.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of western Montana, the Missouri flows east and south 3,767 km before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri.
During the 20th century, the Missouri River basin was extensively developed for irrigation, flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Meanders have been cut and the river channelized to improve navigation, reducing its length by almost 320 km from pre-development times. Although the lower Missouri valley is now a populous and highly productive agricultural and industrial region, heavy development has taken its toll on wildlife and fish populations as well as water quality.
13/05/2017, Bombetoka Bay, Madagascar Although PROBA-V was designed as a land surface research mission, several studies have indicated that its high-quality 100 m observations are beneficial for coastal turbidity monitoring.
Within the framework of the Advanced Land, Aerosol, and Coastal Products for PROBA-V (PV-LAC) and PROBA4COAST projects, a new version of iCOR was developed for application to PROBA-V observations and to generate coastal turbidity maps. These maps reveal more detailed spatial patterns of turbid waters at coasts and river estuaries compared to existing turbidity maps from typical Ocean Colour satellites.
R&D professional Water & Coast Els Knaeps explains more on coastal turbidity monitoring and the availability of PROBA-V coastal products in her latest blog
'A vegetation satellite fo coastal turbidity monitoring'.
An example of turbid coastal waters can be seen in the 100 m image of 13 May 2017, which shows the Betsiboka delta in northwestern Madagascar. The river is about 525 km long and its delta is surrounded by mangroves. The greens taints clearly show the turbid waters from the river flowing northwards into Mozambique Channel.
In May 2017, PROBA-V captured this false-colour image of the Betsiboka River Delta in Madagascar. Betsiboka River originates to the east of the capital city of Antananarivo.
Betsiboka is further known as the Red River and owes its distinctive colour to the vast amounts of reddish-orange silt it carries out to sea. These large quantities of river sediments are evidence of large-scale soil erosion that is occurring in the northwestern part of the island in the past 50 years.
Located in the southeast corner of the image, is Ankarafantsika National Park, home to the long-tailed, big-footed mouse, an endangered, nocturnal rodent that is only found in northwest Madagascar. Its patches of dense, dry tropical forest are highlighted in red and inhabited by mouse lemurs (world’s smallest primates) and 129 recorded bird species of which more than half are endemic to the island.
27/02/2017, Bangladesh, Asia One of the climate change implications is global sea level rise, with Bangladesh as one of the most vulnerable countries.
The 100 m image above of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (27 February 2017) is overlaid by a map that indicates the land (in purple) and water (in light blue) gained between March 2014 and February 2017. The observed land and water distribution change cannot be attributed to climate change solely, but also to natural delta dynamics, resulting in an interplay between river sedimentation and erosion. Nevertheless, between 2014 and 2017 an estimated net 15 km2 of land was claimed by the ocean. More information on the land-sea detection methodology and PROBA-V’s role in global sea level rise monitoring can be found in our Remote Sensing blog. https://blog.vito.be/remotesensing/monitoring-global-sea-level-rise-using-satellite-data
04/12/2016, Rhine and Scheldt Delta On 4th December 2016, PROBA-V captured this beautiful 100 m false-colour image of the estuaries of the Scheldt and Rhine rivers along the coast of Belgium and the Netherlands. The ports of Rotterdam in the north and Antwerp, along the tidal Scheldt river in the south, are two of Europe’s busiest harbours and gateways into northwest Europe.
In between the two main shipping routes of the delta, basins like the Eastern Scheldt remind us past connections between the rivers and the North Sea. The Dutch Delta Works, recognized as a marvel of modern Civil Engineering, protect inland areas from flooding through various dams, sluices, dykes and storm surges.
The smaller port of Zeebrugge, to the east, along the coast and the inland harbour of Ghent that is connected to the Scheldt river by a canal, are visible as well.
15/10/2016, Yukon Delta, Alaska Along the west coast of the US state of Alaska, in a tundra landscape that can be navigated by bush planes or boats in Summer and snow mobiles or sleds in Winter, PROBA-V spots the last part of the 3,190 km long Yukon River, emptying out into the Bering Sea.
Originating in British Columbia, Canada where it further flows through a namesake territory. The Yukon River was the primary means of transportation for gold seekers and explorers at the end of the 19th and early 20th century. Today, it is the northern edge of the protected Yukon Delta Wildlife Refuge that includes extensive wetlands and is frequently inundated by the Bering Sea tides.
The name Yukon is blended from a phrase in the indigenous language that can be translated as white water river, referring to the visual effect of glacial silt.
15/08/2016, Oranjerivier, Noordkaap, South Africa The false-colour image showed the southern part of Namibia and northern part of South Africa. The Oranjerivier borders the two countries and meanders from east to west.
Further, the Riemvasmaak Community Conservancy is visible as the large yellow area in the image lower part, while the Augrabies Falls National Park and the city of Upington are visible along the Oranjerivier in the image right part.
06/10/2016, Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana PROBA-V’s view on the Mississippi River Delta, southeastern coast of Louisiana.
The Mississippi River Delta is a vast mosaic of marshes and forested wetlands, estuaries, navigable waterways and islands. It provides an array of natural habitats and resources that benefit not only the state of Louisiana and coastal region, but also the entire nation.
This false-colour, 100 m resolution image is captured on 6 October 2016.
05/05/2016, Gironde estuary, France The Gironde is a navigable estuary in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne just downstream of the centre of Bordeaux. Covering around 635 km², it is the largest estuary in western Europe. The Gironde is approximately 80 km long and 3–11 km wide and the French département Gironde is named after it. The Gironde is subject to very strong tidal currents and great care is needed when navigating the estuary by any size or type of boat.
15/09/2016, Columbia River, USA In this false-colour, 100 m resolution image captured in mid September 2016, the brown mountains and urban environment (along the northwest branch of Columbia River), the dark rivers, the green patchwork and green-to-orange spots of crop fields make for a colour palette that reminds us of the Autumn season.
In the centre of the image, where the river suddenly narrows just south of the pivot fields, it passes by a national landmark – the Wallula Gap.
24/06/2015, Ashburton River, Australia Amidst the hills and ranges in the northern parts of Western Australia, with a desertic climate, we find Ashburton River and its floodplains dominated by Acacia shrublands and grasslands that light up in red in this 100m false-colour PROBA-V image of late July 2015.
The River flows north to northwestward to finally flow into the Indian Ocean near Onslow. In the image, it is clearly joined by several tributaries that flow in from the north to northeast, east and south. Paulsens Gold Mine is highlighted by the bright blue spot.
12/06/2016, Paranà River, Argentina-Paraguay The image from our PROBA-V quiz on September 6th, showed the confluence of the Paraná and Paraguay rivers, right on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The Paraná River, Río Paraná in Spanish, forms the second longest river in South America after the famous Amazon. Its historical name, in local Tupi language, translates to ‘as big as the sea’.
In the image, the Paraná flows from the reservoir (east) formed by the Yaciretá dam, a joint development of both countries, towards the west before joining Paraguay river (flowing north-to-south) and heading further south through Argentina. South of the namesake city, it will join the Uruguay River in the Paraná Delta, a large flood plain, and empties in the Atlantic Ocean near Buenos Aires.
25/11/2014, Kafue River, Zambia The 100 m false-colour image of 25 November 2014 shows us a colourfull image of Namwala, a district of Zambia, located in Southern Province. It lies on the southern bank of the Kafue River at 996 metres above sea level. The longest river lying wholy within Zambia at about 1,600 kilometres long. It is the largest tributary of the Zambezi, and of Zambia's principal rivers. More than 50% of Zambia's population live in the Kafue River Basin and of these around 65% are urban. It has a mean flow rate of 320 m³/s through its lower half, with high seasonal variations. The river discharges 10 km³ per year into the Zambezi River.
21/10/2015, Mississippi Delta, Bolivar County The 100 m false-colour image of 21 October 2015 shows us the Mississippi Delta in Bolivar County. Technically the area is not a delta but part of an alluvial plain, created by regular flooding of the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers over thousands of years. This region is remarkably flat and contains some of the most fertile soil in the world. It is two hundred miles long and seventy miles across at its widest point, encompassing circa 4,415,000 acres, or, some 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain. The shifting river delta at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf Coast lies some 300 miles south of this area, and is referred to as the Mississippi River Delta. The two should not be confused.
23/02/2016, Rio Limay, Rio Neuquén and Rio Negro The 100 m false-colour image of 23 October 2016 shows us a nice view over the rivers: Río Limay, Rio Neuquén and Rio Negro (center to the right). The Neuquén River(upper left to centeer) is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River (lower left to center). It is born at the eastern end of the Nahuel Huapi Lake and flows in a meandering path for about 380 kilometres, collecting the waters of several tributaries, such as the Traful River, the Pichileufú and the Collón Curá. It then meets the Neuquén River and together they become the Río Negro. At this confluence lies the city of Neuquén.
The river serves as natural limit between the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén. Its deep waters are clear, and carry a large flow, 700 cubic metres per second on average.
28/02/2016, Rio Negro The 100 m false-colour image of 28 February 2016 shows us Rio Negro, the largest left tributary of the Amazon, the largest blackwater river in the world, and one of the world's ten largest rivers in average discharge. Lake Dique Casa de Piedra (below) and Lago Sal Grande (upper right) a salt lake which is an isolated body of water that has a concentration of salts (mainly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than other lakes.
09/04/2015, Murrumbidgee Valley, Australia The 100 m false-colour image of 9 april 2015 shows us Murrumbidgee Valley National Park, a protected national park located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The park protects part of what is now the largest continuous tract of river red gum forest in the world. The Murrumbidgee Valley River Park, when combined with the Murrumbidgee Valley Nature Reserve, comprise a number of separate precincts spread over 250 kilometres. The precincts that make up the Murrumbidgee Valley River Parks are generally quite small and narrow and collectively span a large section of river frontage. They consist of a number of former state forests.
16/05/2015, The Riverina, Australia The 100 m false-colour image of 16 May 2015 shows us the Riverina, an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia.
05/09/2015, Rio de la Plata, Argentina The 100 m false-colour image of 5 September 2015 shows us the Río de la Plata, occasionally Plata River. A river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean, forming a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America. The river is a salt wedge estuary in which saltwater, being more dense than freshwater, penetrates into the estuary in a layer below the freshwater, which floats on the surface. Salinity fronts, or haloclines, form at the bottom and on the surface, where fresh and brackish waters meet. The salinity fronts are also pycnoclines due to the water density discontinuities. They play an important role in the reproductive processes of fish species.
26/03/2015, Mississippi River Delta, USA The 100 m false-colour image of 26 March 2015 shows us the Mississippi River Delta, also know as birdfoot. The modern Mississippi River Delta formed over the last approximately 7,000 years as the Mississippi River deposited sand, clay and silt along its banks and in adjacent basins. The Mississippi River Delta is a river-dominated delta system, influenced by the largest river in North America. The shape of the current birdfoot delta reflects the dominance the river exudes over the other hydrologic and geologic processes at play in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Prior to the extensive leveeing of the Mississippi River that began in the 1930s, the river avulsed its course in search of a shorter route to the Gulf of Mexico approximately every 1,000-1,500 years. The prehistoric and historic delta lobes of the Mississippi River Delta have influenced the formation of the Louisiana coastline and led to the creation of over 4 million acres of coastal wetlands.
25/06/2015, Hope River, Australia The mid-west of Western Australia state, occupying one third of Australia, is only sparsely populated, with mining and pastoralism in large ranches as main economic activities. In this arid region, shown in the false-colour image of late June 2015, the last part of Hope river flows northwestward to join the Yalgar river (east-west oriented, middle of the image) and subsequently the Murchison river that will discharge into the Indian Ocean further southwest. At 100 m spatial resolution, we can see the impressive network of small rivers and creeks. Together, the Murchison-Yalgar-Hope river system is the longest river system of Western Australia.
As the rain that feeds this system is generally linked to Summer cyclones, the Murchison river does not flow much of the year, resulting in a dry, sandy river bed. The cyclones do cause occasional flooding, such as the record-high flow in 2006.
26/12/2015, Stream of the Arabs In the false-colour, 100 m resolution PROBA-V image dated around Christmas time last year, we can follow the Stream of the Arabs (Shatt al-Arab) from the joining of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the northwest, passing by the Central and Hawizeh Marshes and the Iraqi city of Basra (centre, faintly green). After that, the river coincides with the Iraq-Iran border and passes the protected Shadegan Ponds, that are home to migrating European, Canadese and Siberian water birds, until reaching its mouth into the Persian Gulf (southeast).
To the south of the river and next to a colourful discharge plume into the Gulf, we see Bubiyan and its smaller neighbour Warbah, uninhabited islands of Kuwait. The Mubarak Al-Kabeer Reserve is located in the northern part of Bubiyan Island and is the first wetland of Kuwait designated as important under the Ramsar convention.
06/10/2015, Lena river in ice, Russia In the east, a handful of streams originate in the mountains of Charaoelach and feed into the river. In the northwest, the Chekanovsky Ridge is home to various types of vegetation and follows the river further downstream to its delta. In the (south)west, clouds or haze obscure the image, though a number of frozen, smaller water bodies (white spots) can be seen.
16/06/2015, Fitzroy river, Australia King Sound is the gulf expanding from the mouth of the Fitzroy River. It features one of the largest tidal ranges in the world, reaching values as high as 12 m. The image shows the bay, with the Fitzroy River mouth in the central-lower part. The light-brown and greenish areas at the coast represent deposited sediment stirred up by the tidal turbulence.
08/07/2015, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia A northern portion of the Great Barrier Reef, with Corbett Reef’s beautiful tail and Princess Charlotte Bay, a protected home for among others dugong fish. While still reported to be in pristine condition, the Reefs are under threat from climate change (e.g. rising sea temperature, ocean acidification), pollution and intensive fishing practices.
06/09/2014, Yukon, Alaska The Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta is one of the largest river deltas in the world and part of a protected wildlife refuge in Alaska. The PROBA-V image nicely captures the sediment discharge into the Bering Sea.
02/01/2016, Mississippi flood, USA During the last week of December 2015, a large low-pressure system slowly moved eastward over the United States, causing heavy precipitation over the Mid-West. Over December 2015, some locations received more than 6 times the normal precipitation amount, which eventually resulted in a record-breaking flooding of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.
The images show the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio River on 13 November 2015 (left) and 2 January 2016 (right). The flood impact is well visible, especially downstream of the confluence point.
16/03/2015, Georgina River, Australia The 100 m false-colour image of 16 March 2015 shows the intertwined streams of the Georgina River in red, meandering through the central Australian desert. The grey-purple area west of the river indicates salt planes resulting from lakes that temporarimy exist during the dry season (October - April)
04/08/2015, Yangtze River, China The 300 m false colour image of 4 August 2015 shows the Yangtze meandering towards its estuary near Shangai. Deposited river sediments are indicated by the blueish-greenish colours. The large water area south of the estuary is Taihu Lake, while in the lower-right the Qiantang Jiang River estuary is visible.
18/03/2015, Fitzroy River Estuary, Australia The 100 m image of 18 March 2015 shows the Fitzroy River meandering towards the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Deposited sediment is visible by the greenish colours in the river's mouth, while the estuarine wetlands are indicated by the green-grey areas. Further, a blue-green rectangular shape near the river's mouth denotes a large salt mining site.
09/06/2015, Volga River Delta, Russia The false-color 100 m image of 9 June 2015 shows the Volga River Delta, a protected area since the early 1900s. A substantial part of this delta consists of wetlands, indicated by the red areas. These wetlands are an important breeding ground for migrating water birds. Further, the delta harbours well-known fish species, such as sturgeon, catfish, and carp.
03/08/2015, Asia, Myanmar floods Unusually heavy monsoon rains during July and August 2015 caused severe floods in large parts of Myanmar. The country annually receives abundant rain during these months, but during the 2015 monsoon season the precipitation amount was much higher due to cyclone Komen. The floods affected several million people and destroyed more than 5,000 km^2 of farm land (source: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [OCHA]).
The left image shows the Irrawaddy River in middle-Myanmar at 30 April 2015, while the right image shows the same area during the heavy monsoon rains and floods at 3 August 2015.
04/8/2015, Floods, Pakistan Heavy monsoon rains, rapid snow melting, and outbursts from glacial lakes between 16 and 22 July 2015 caused large floods of the Indus River in eastern Pakistan. As of 4 August, about 1.3 million people were affected, more than 6,000 houses and over1,000 km² of crop land area were destroyed (source: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs).
The Indus River originates at the Tibetan Plateau and flows through Tibet, western India, and eastern Pakistan. It has a length of 3,180 km and a total drainage area of about 1,165,000 km².
Presented are PROBA-V 300 m images of the Indus River flowing through eastern Pakistan at 28 June 2015 (right panel) and 4 August 2015 (left panel), showing the enormous flood extent.
27/07/2014, Lena river, Russia The 100 m image of 27 July 2014 presents the Lena Delta in its entirety. On the left side, mostly small lakes and ponds are visible, while the image's right side shows the Lena's side branches.
18/03/2015, Mekong Delta, South Vietnam The 100 m image of March, 18th 2015 shows part of the Mekong Delta and Vietnam's southern provinces. The small-scale structures visible in the image indicate the various forms of agriculture, in particular aquaculture farms for shrimp and fish breeding, as well as many rice paddies.
18/01/2015, USA, Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the major river of the largest drainage system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for 3,730 km to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. Its many tributaries drain all or parts of 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains.
The false color image very nicely shows the meandering Mississippi River through the states of Ohio and Arkansas, with the Arkansas River flowing into the Mississippi from the west.
15/10/2014, USA, Atchafalaya River The Atchafalaya River is a sidebranch of the Mississippi River of only 220 km that flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Despite being short, it is the firth largest river in the USA by discharge. The name "Atchafalaya" comes from the Choctaw Indian language for "long river", from hachcha, "river", and falaya, "long".
Shown on the image is the Atchafalaya River delta, with two typical ‘birdfoot’ patterns visible. At these locations, the river deposits sand and clay particles and is the only part at the Louisianan coast that is gaining ground.
10/02/2015, Mississippi River Delta, USA The Mississippi River Delta along the south coast of Louisiana, covers ~12,000 km². On average, the Mississippi River discharges ~17,000 m³ per second into the Gulf of Mexico. Over the past millenia, the river has changed course regularly. This resulted in a variety of landscapes in the Delta area, with the characteristic birdfoot delta pattern.
07/11/2014, Senegal River, Senegal Mauritania The Senegal River is 1,800 km long and borders Senegal from Mauritania. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean near the city of Saint-Louis. The river has two large dams along its course, the multi-purpose Manantali Dam in Mali and the Maka-Diama Dam on the Mauritania-Senegal border. The image shows the Senegal river flowing westward towards the Atlantic Ocean, with the Sahara desert to the north. Further, several irrigation fields are located along the river, with the most extensive fields between Lac de Guiers and the Senegal River in the center of the image.
11/08/2014, Hotan, China PROBA-V captured a nice view of Hotan, a Chinese oasis town bordered by the vast desert and the Kunlun mountains below. This 100 m false-colour image nicely shows the agricultural areas and 2 crossing streams, the Black and White Jade river, that are situated around Hotan.
10/09/2014, Jhelum river, Pakistan Heavy monsoon rains and floods across Pakistan occurred during the first week of September 2014. The rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Jhelum flooded, which caused homes to collapse in the Punjab, Gilgit Baltistan (GB) and Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) regions. More than 28,000 people have been affected in AJK and Punjab.
14/08/2014, Indus river, Pakistan The Indus River is a major river in Asia. It originates in the Tibetan Plateau and flows through Pakistan, some parts of India and China, as well as western Tibet and Kashmir.
06/08/2014, Rhône, France The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe, originating in Switzerland, passing through Lake Geneva and flowing through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth at the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône (French: Grand Rhône) and the Little Rhône (Petit Rhône). The resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region.
02/05/2014, Nile Delta, Egypt The Nile Delta, shown on this 300 m image of 2 May 2014, is the delta formed in lower Northern Egypt, where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas, from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east. It covers 240 kilometres of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 kilometres in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.
02/04/2014, Okavango Delta, Botswana The Okavango Delta in Botswana, shown on this 100 m image of 2 April 2014, is a very large inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the Kalahari basin. The water reaching the Delta is ultimately evaporated and does not flow into any sea or ocean. Each year, approximately 11 cubic kilometres of water spread over the 6,000-15,000 km² area. Some flood waters drain into Lake Ngami. The Moremi Game Reserve, a National Park, is on the eastern side of the Delta. This statistical significance helped the Okavango Delta secure a position as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa, which were officially declared on February 11, 2013 in Arusha, Tanzania.
01/04/2014, Floods, Serbia These 10-day synthesis images indicate the effects of heavy rains and subsequent floods during May 2014. Between 14 and 18 May, a stationary low-pressure system, generated and further activated through the collision of a polar airflow from the north and warm, humid subtropical air from the southwest, caused persistent rains in south-eastern and central Europe. Daily precipitation amounts on 15 May were as large as 110 mm in several parts of Serbia.
The upper panel shows the pre-flood conditions for the Danube and Sava River region in parts of Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the first dekad of April, while the lower panel shows the situation for the same region during the 3rd dekad of May, about one week after the most heavy rains.
26/11/2013, Brahmaputra, Bangladesh The Brahmaputra river, which can be seen in the middle part of this 300 m image of 26 November 2013, is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra. It is a trans-boundary river and one of the major Asian rivers. Majuli is the Riverine island formed by River Brahmaputra in Assam (India).
07/10/2013, Rio de La Plata, Argentina The Río de la Plata is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and Uruguay. It is a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America, about 290 kilometres long. This nearly cloud-free 300 m image of 7 October 2013 nicely shows the confluence of the two mentioned rivers into the estuary. The sedimentation in the estuary is also visible by the brownish colors.
02/12/2014, Inner Niger Delta, Mali The Niger river has a peculiar flow. Having its source only 250 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean in Guinea, the river flows northeastwards through Mali. It then makes a turn to the southeast and flows through Niger, Benin, and Nigeria into the Gulf of Guinea. This image shows - in green - the Inner Niger Delta, which is a bifurcation of the Niger and one of its tributaries, the Bani river. The triangular shape in the upper part of the image is Lac Fabuigine.